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"Mass Formation" - Populace Hypnosis

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“Mass Formation” – Populace Hypnosis

An increasing number of scholarly documents are being published describing how the mass manipulation of people’s beliefs and behavior is occurring. Previously identified as mob or crowd psychology, this is now called “mass formation.” It is mind and belief control of huge numbers of individuals, even of a whole nation.

  • This hypnotic power can actually be contagious.
  • Intriguingly, when large segments of people intensely support an emotional “cause,” personal identity, empathy, even individual morality and guilt are lessened.

This “effect” has been demonstrated in attitudes regarding Covid, climate change, and a disturbing apathy toward those suffering from conflicts and natural disasters throughout the world. Concerns over the human tragedy in Afghanistan are all but forgotten. The invasion of Ukraine is an international tragedy – it was foreseen. Yet – little was done to prevent it. Effective measures to reverse the damage are coming too late. Constructive moves to curtail human suffering have been vapid. Public outcry is often limited to headlines. People are mesmerized by indifference.[1]
The Bible is clear that near the end of the world, people will be spellbound by satanic influences. That will create a standoff with God’s loyalists. There will be a “mass formation,” a global campaign against His true followers and against truth. We tiptoe into the fringes of this growing phenomenon.

Widespread Deception Stalks the Human Mind
A unique introduction to future reality came when a messenger told John seven times, “I will show you ...” In Revelation 16:19 “Babylon,” a Roman prostitute, is destroyed. In referencing this, John said:

  • “One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and said to me, ‘Come, I will show you the punishment of the great prostitute, who sits on many waters.’ (17:1 – NIV). This begins a storyline of what led up to that destruction.
  • Waters prophetically represent “peoples, multitudes, nations and tongues” – the whole world (vs 15).
  • Sitting on” represents ruling over, sovereignty, or, contextually, controlling the world.[2]

Babylon (a coalition of Catholicism – a “beast,” Protestantism – a “false prophet,” and the “dragon” – Satan) will rule the world. God, however, sets a limit on its work.
That antichrist beast gained stunning global authority from Satan (13:4, 7). “He” then becomes the dominant earthly element in that coalition.

  • That world influence is further described: “With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication” (17:2 – KJV).
  • Wine – stupefying, deceptive doctrines; fornication, illicit relationships. The world and its leaders become mesmerized by deceptive bonding over false beliefs.

A broad study into the antichrist, unfolded in Daniel and Revelation, reveals that her authority becomes not only religious but geopolitical. Being “drunk with the wine of her fornication” suggests that the world imbibes/drinks a potion of its deceptive falsehoods and becomes giddy from her teachings.[3] That is why:

  • John was previously shown that Babylon was fallen in God’s eyes (14:8).
  • That will animate His witnesses to shout the warning: “Come out of her my people” (18:4) so you do not receive God’s plagues of wrath (18:4-5).

Noteworthy: “As the churches depart more and more widely from the truth, and ally themselves more closely with the world, the time will come when those who fear and honor God can no longer remain in connection with them. Those that ‘believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness,’ will be left to receive ‘strong delusion,’ and to ‘believe a lie.’ [2 Thessalonians 2:11, 12.] Then the spirit of persecution will again be revealed. But the light of truth will shine upon all whose hearts are open to receive it, and all the children of the Lord still in Babylon, will heed the call, ‘Come out of her, my people.’[4] “This message is the last that will ever be given to the world; and it will accomplish its work.”[5]
A fascinating adjunct to this information came to John in the middle of the Seven Last Plagues prophecy (Revelation 16).

  • “And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet. For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty” (16:13-14).
  • This, again, identifies those three leaders of Babylon who are on a fearful mission.

The words of these “individuals” (the coalition) will collectively mesmerize the world with deceit. Their authoritative tie with Satan (the dragon) provides each with power to even perform miracles, which helps to convince the world that their messaging is truth.

  • This becomes a “mass formation” event. The whole world sympathizes.
  • Supportive Biblical end-time prophecies: “all the world wondered after” (13:3), “the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk” with her wine (17:2), “that old serpent … deceiveth the whole world (12:9).

Satan and his minions bring convincing hypnotic messages to planet earth!
This coalition will persecute God’s people (Revelation 13:7) because they refuse to accept its falsehoods. What techniques bring the world together? How can such a diverse world unite under a common cause? It must be perceived as bringing relief, personal help, and/or eliminating a threat in a time of uncertainty.
There are two chronicled events that reveal how such a hypnotic force can control and harm the masses in society:

  1. The study of how Hitler’s ordinary citizens became executioners of the innocent.
  2. The rapid global curtailment of individual freedom by geopolitical leaders under the guise of Covid disinformation.

The German Eliminationist[6]
Threading back into the 1800’s, anti-Jewish sentiment ran throughout the German culture.
It became known as the “Jewish Problem.” Social constraints prevented overt harm to this people.

  • That changed August 13, 1920, when Hitler articulated in a speech before 1200 people “Why are we antisemites?”
  • It contained a resolution “to seize the evil [the Jews] by the roots and to exterminate [them] root and branch,” even if we must “join forces with the Devil.”[7]

Hitler was persuasive and articulate, and rallied people to this cause. Over the next nineteen years the media provided constant assaults, insults, and antisemitic reports, intending to free Germany of the Jews. The barrage then intensified, claiming that they were subhuman and the cause of evil. Physical violence was culturally tolerated during the 1930’s. In “sympathy,” legal moves were made to encourage this people to immigrate in 1938.

  • By 1939 the Jews became socially isolated, and by 1941 all Jewish people were required to wear a yellow star to be publicly identified.
  • As World War II began, aggressive military preparation became an excuse to eliminate them. They were then seen as an impediment to the German nation.

This morphed into a highly organized movement that was launched in the summer of 1941.[8] Psychologically, for many Germans, it became a “national task” to forward and complete. Then came the death camps.

  • The Jews had become a socially despised group.
  • Their rank in German culture had been further diminished by restrictions in buying and selling, isolation camps, wearing those arm bands and, through lethal local raids, causing death to many (first men, then women and children).
  • This was all preceded by the slaughter of the mentally and physically infirm, which began in 1939![9] That hardened the populous and destroyed any remaining sensitivity toward the Jewish people!

“A constant and pervasive cruelty marked the Germans’ treatment of Jews, especially in camps and ghettos. The Germans were cruel not only in that they incarcerated the Jews within wretched enclosures under a harsh regime designed to cause pain and suffering and then killed them in gruesome ways…. the Germans pummeled Jews, lacerated their flesh, trampled them underfoot, and forced them to perform bizarre and self-abasing acts.”[10]
“The smoothness of the Germans’ implementation of the extermination program is another of its extraordinary features.”[11]
“From where did so many ordinary Germans derive this genocidal drive and energy?
The conventional explanations are incapable of satisfying even the most limited of these explanatory demands....
“The conventional views are abstract, ahistorical explanations.”[12]
“The one explanation adequate to these tasks [however] holds that a demonological antisemitism … of the perpetrators’ cognition and of German society in general.”[13]
“It cannot be doubted that National Socialism [mass formation] had succeeded to the fullest extent in convincing public opinion and furthermore the overwhelming majority of the German people.”[14]
“The perpetrators, like Ohlendorf, believed that the Jews had left them no choice. There can be no doubt that their beliefs about Jews were of a sufficiently virulent kind and intensity to have led them to accept the genocide as an appropriate ‘solution,’ if not the only ‘final solution to the Jewish problem.’”[15]
With scholarly intensity, Goldhagan sought to bring logic to why ordinary Germans killed and tortured the Jews. He could see that the promotion of nationalistic culture of hate succeeded. However, the one explanation that rose above all – a demonic force took over the minds of ordinary people!
Strange and instructive: That spirit will be replicated. In speaking of virulent thinking against God’s people at the end of time, Jesus said:

  • “Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name’s sake. And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another” (Matthew 24:9-10).
  • “Beloved, think it not strange concerning the fiery trial which is to try you, as though some strange thing happened unto you” (I Peter 4:12). That is how demonically-controlled people operate.

“Satanic agencies have been moved from beneath, and they have inspired men to unite in a confederacy of evil, that they may perplex, harass, and cause the people of God great distress. The whole world is to be stirred with enmity against … [God’s loyalists] because they will not yield homage to the … [antichrist], by honoring” its institutions of deception. “It is the purpose of Satan to cause them to be blotted from the earth, in order that his supremacy of the world may not be disputed.”[16]
“If the world hate you, ye know that it hated me before it hated you” (John 15:18). “Marvel not, my brethren, if the world hate you” (I John 3:13).
The Jewish story stands as a warning to the remnant. How strong is one’s trust in God’s permissive leadings.
The Great Reset
During President Trump’s tenure, Archbishop Carlo Maria Vigano wrote an open letter to him (October 2020), warning that the Great Reset was a global conspiracy against God and humanity. He lamented that most world leaders were in support of this geopolitical economic remolding of society![17]

  • Then the pandemic became the excuse to initiate renovation of all aspects of the world’s societies – a “reset.”
  • Originator of the World Economic Forum (WEF), German Professor Klaus Schwab, spearheaded this revamping of a “community of common interest, purpose, and action.” This would inaugurate a new world order, dreamed of since 1942. He called its social “mechanics” “The Great Reset.”

Catholic Life Site News reported with alarm the WEF’s objectives:

“Every country, from the United States to China, must participate, and every industry, from oil and gas to tech, must be transformed,” Schwab demanded. The alleged “unsustainability of our old system” must be totally thrown off.

“National governments will need to ‘steer the market toward fairer outcomes,’ … overhauling domestic tax policy and trade agreements, Schwab explained. Companies must have ‘clearer guidelines,’ namely, those already produced through the WEF, which gauge corporations based on metrics like ethnic diversity and climate impact. [That describes oppressive socialism.]

“The energy industry, in particular, requires near-total metamorphosis. According to Schwab, ‘climate change could be the next global disaster with even more dramatic consequences for humankind. We have to decarbonize the economy in the short window we have left.’

“The banking and finance industries are other top targets, as with IMF Director Georgieva’s proposal for states forcibly to halt payments by banks to their shareholders.”[18]

All this entails nothing less than a global conversion into a Marxist mindset.

  • Many politicians have been weaponizing the pandemic Covid-19 crisis by compelling submission to unscientific mandates (a global “training experiment”). Contrived policies have controlled a vast arena of individuals’ lives.

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Mastercard, pharmaceutical giant Glaxo Smith Kline, Microsoft and Pepsi are working toward a “common [vaccination] pass” for travel. United Airlines and Cathay Pacific Flight, along with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and U.S. Customs and Border Protection, have united to see this realized.

  • Looking at the medical data, numerous scientists see that this has less to do with the population’s health,
  • But more to do with developing a control agenda for submission of the populace.[19]

The World Economic Forum (WEF), addressing the corporate world, said:
You must “bring the world closer to achieving shared goals, such as those outlined in the Paris climate agreement and the United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda. “If you really want to leave a mark on the world, there is no alternative.”[20]
The questions then become: “Who decides what an improved state of the world should look like?” “Who would ‘enforce’ its mandates?”
“For years they [the WEF] have been trying to sell and market their agenda for change by implementing the policies of” the elite leaders of the world. “The great policy reset!”
Unelected global elites, often operating outside the law, are deciding for “ordinary citizens how they will live, work, communicate and do business in the future.” [21] However:

  • It can’t happen unless they have full control of individual lives.
  • It won’t happen unless the citizens are deceived and submit.
  • It won’t happen unless a form of tyranny enters this country, especially as Revelation 13:11-17 predicts with a “strong man” in charge.

A stunning illustration of this occurring was noted in late February 2022. The Centers for Disease Control admitted that it has been withholding Covid-19 information from the public so the public won’t misuse the data. The real effectiveness of isolation, vaccines, masks and distancing has not been formally shared by the government. (Yet, medical scholars have seen zero effectiveness from these mandates.) Adding to this are the deceptive statistics of “Covid” hospitalizations, which the CDC overcounted by many factors.[22]
This is all part of a “mass formation” to deceive the majority of people to submit to social mandates. This vast experiment, touching most countries, has become a successful, evil experiment.
Mesmerizing the Masses
Psychologist and statistician Dr. Mattias Desmet observed that even intelligent people have blindly accepted the mainstream narrative regarding Covid. He said that this “mass formation” phenomenon can even affect cognitive functions of brilliant minds.[23]
This “new reality” may occur when four things exist, he said:

  1. People are socially isolated with impairment of social bonds (such as in quarantines, barriers to going to work, and restricting settings such as church services).
  2. People then lack a purpose in life. A constructive focus is blurred.
  3. Then comes much “free-floating” anxiety – an ill-defined restlessness.
  4. Then an ill-defined “free-floating” discontent follows.

These free-floating psychological experiences are painful, and people are looking for why they have negative feelings. When the mass media provides a seemingly true narrative answer, people are ready to submit; they bow to their reasoning.

  • Their emotions can now be explained. They must acquiesce to defeating “this enemy.”
  • Result? Mass intoxication, crowd unity, cultural hypnosis.

Statistics/facts no longer matter. An answer has come to assuage their painful anxiety.

  • This narrows people’s field of attention.
  • The social or political leaders can then more easily operate as a totalitarian state.

All of this has happened to some degree with the “Covid crisis.”[24]
People focused so much on a single issue, they didn’t recognize that freedom and even material well-being were being limited. People became insensitive to personal losses.

  • Associated with this was intolerance and anger to any narrative that was contrary to the group beliefs.
  • That explains why there is such intense war to demonize and destroy the non-compliant![25]


  1. Public health experts have done nothing significant to mitigate or suppress the “pandemic.”
  2. The lockdowns failed to stop the virus.
  3. Universal masking has failed to stop the virus.
  4. Millions of societal restrictions and business closures have failed to stop the virus.
  5. The highly touted “miracle” mRNA shots have failed to stop the virus.

The pandemic has contributed to a significant decline in democratic values across the globe. Twenty percent of the countries of the world have used their military to impose Covid controls. Albania and Mexico have the most punitive laws allowing prison sentences up to 15 plus years for those violating pandemic-related protocols. Australia is close behind.

“As in many other aspects of life, the Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated and magnified pre-existing political trends while adding a whole new plethora of unprecedented challenges to democracies that were already under pressure,” writes Kevin Casas-Zamore, IIDEA’s [International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance – Sweden] secretary-general, in the preface to the report. “The monumental human victory achieved when democracy became the predominant form of governance now hangs in the balance like never before.”[26]
Psychologist Larry Turner, in analyzing the studies of Dr. Mattias Desmet, notes that those concurrent four predisposing factors can abruptly produce an energetic submission to totalitarian government demands.

  • Totalitarian states, when matured, lead to repression, strong control of the economy, censorship, mass surveillance, limited freedom of movement and the use of state terrorism – as was recently seen in Canada.

Turner summarized his reaction to Desmet’s observations:
“Joining with others to deal with a perceived crisis extinguishes the social isolation problem that plagues many people. Likewise, having a concrete and apparently serious problem to deal with provides sensemaking and a home for any previous free-floating anxiety. Oddly enough, working on an evidently serious problem jointly with the rest of the humanity makes the discontented at least temporarily content. Unfortunately, … this sort of mass formation and its associated totalitarian state misbehavior never … end[s] well.”[27]
David Kupelian, editor of the Christian Whistleblower Magazine, notes in a recent article, “Hope in a Hopeless World,” December 2021: “All of this is not the real war being waged against the freest and most successful nation in history.
“The more fundamental, profound and ultimately consequential war being fought within the United States of America today is the one being waged against the American mind. A never-ending wave of assaults is literally targeting Americans’ core values, religious faith, historical memory, love of country, equanimity and happiness – indeed, their very sanity.”
The Emerging Age of Censorship
Almost everything is fair game for a spirit of intolerance and censorship. The cultural (government/federal) is increasingly using race relations, religion, sex, health, social corruption, police brutality, and Covid vaccinations as “mass formation” tools to manipulate thinking.
From The Rutherford Institute, jointly with John and Nisha Whitehead, come these thoughts:
“This tendency to censor, silence, delete, label as ‘hateful’ and demonize viewpoints that run counter to the cultural elite is being embraced with a near-fanatical zealotry by a cult-like establishment that values conformity and group-think over individuality.

“For instance, are you skeptical about the efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccines? Do you have concerns about the outcome of the 2024 presidential election? Do you subscribe to religious beliefs that shape your views on sexuality, marriage and gender? Do you, deliberately or inadvertently, engage in ‘misgendering’ (identifying a person’s perceived gender incorrectly) or ‘deadnaming’ (using the wrong pronouns or birth name for a transgender person)?

“Say yes to any of those questions and then dare to voice those views in anything louder than a whisper and you might find yourself suspended on Twitter, shut out of Facebook, and banned across various social media platforms.” Manipulation of “correct” social thinking is intensifying.
The First Amendment is going up in “flames.” “All this editing, parsing, barring, and silencing is the emergence of a new language – what George Orwell referred to as ‘Newspeak.’ Language and speech is in the strengthening hand of a totalitarian few. It is a form of societal mind control. It is a “mass formation,” a strong “group” trend, moving minds into submission.[28] 
End-Time Warnings
God’s loyal followers, the remnant of Revelation 12:17, will be victims of Satan’s wrath the closer we approach the end (which is “even at the doors” – Matt. 24:33). Difficult times will come on a global scale, suggesting a “mass formation” movement against commandment-keeping, Christ-loving people:

  • “And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations” (Revelation 13:7 – KJV)
    • Leader – the antichrist
    • “Saints” – God’s end-time remnant
    • Extent of hatred – global
    • Success – saints “overcome”
  • “He will speak against the Most High and oppress his holy people and try to change the set times and the laws. The holy people will be delivered into his hands for a time, times and half a time” (3½ years) (Daniel 7:25 – NIV).
    • Antichrist speaks out against God – then:
    • Oppresses and suppresses God’s people 42 months (Revelation 11:1, 13:5 – 3½ years).
  • “It shall be for a time, times, and an half; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished” (Daniel 12:7b – KJV).
    • At the end of that 3½ years – deliverance of God’s people comes (Daniel 12:1).
    • Until then – God’s people will be oppressed.
  • “And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed…. And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed” (Revelation 13:12, 15 – KJV).
    • A “strong man” in support of the sea-beast antichrist
    • With global power, will have
    • Life and death control over those without the mark of the beast
      (opposite of God’s sign or covenant mark as noted in Exodus 31:16-17).

That mesmerizing movement becomes a global hypnotic spell that separates God’s holy people from those in rebellion against His wonderful grace and requirements. The Covid-19 mass control “experiment” has been remarkable in its global effectiveness. In a short time, the world was “reset” by controlling mandates. The mark-of-the-beast crisis will have the same earmarks as this world order control.
“Probation’s hour is fast closing, and every case is about to be eternally decided. There are few who believe with heart and soul that we have a heaven to win and a hell to shun; but these few show their faith by their works. The signs of Christ’s coming are fast fulfilling. Satan sees that he has but a short time in which to work, and he has set his satanic agencies at work to stir the elements of the world, in order that men may be deceived, deluded, and kept occupied and entranced until the day of probation shall be ended, and the door be forever shut.”[29] 
This is a unique time where Isaiah 5:20 is fearfully apropos. Deception is rampart. Universal guilt drives the heart to control and suppress others. A world order never seen in human history is stalking humanity. We lean on the advice that Christ gave on the Mount of Olives to four of his disciples: “Take heed that no man deceive you (Matthew 24:4).

  • Paul notes, “But evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving, and being deceived” (Matthew 24:4).
  • “The great evangelist Charles Spurgeon once said: ‘Lower the Law and you dim the light by which man perceives his guilt; this is a very serious loss to the sinner rather than a gain; for it lessens the likelihood of his conviction and conversion. I say you have deprived the gospel of its ablest auxiliary [its most powerful weapon] when you have set aside the Law. You have taken away from it the schoolmaster that is to bring men to Christ.… They will never accept grace till they tremble before a just and holy Law. Therefore, the Law serves a most necessary purpose, and it must not be removed from its place.”[30]

A World Disordered
One of the main architects of the mRNA research was Robert Malone, M.D., a brilliant scientist and professor associated with many institutions. He continues to strongly speak out in many forums against “mass formation psychosis”!

  • “Our government is out of control…. They are lawless. They completely disregard bioethics.”
  • Yet – millions of people are submitting to this mass experiment of Covid vaccinations by injecting virus genes. “This novel technology has not been adequately tested.”
  • “It is starting to look to me like the largest experiment on human beings in recorded history has failed….” This has become “the most massive, globally coordinated propaganda censorship campaign in history of the human race.”[31]

Such techniques, using “mass formation,” are already in use over “climate change,” confusion of the sexes, the role of male leadership, and racial attitudes. The Bible also speaks of a global “abomination that will lead to desolation.” That is described in the Book of Daniel as a religious law that is then coercively imposed and accepted by the world (Daniel 11:31-35, 12:11-12, 8:13; Matthew 24:15).

  • Mass formation is “hypnotizing” the masses. When that comes through some religious edict that God calls an “abomination,” the end quickly comes.
  • Set aside bias, know your Bible, and submit to making Jesus Christ your friend.


Franklin S. Fowler, Jr., M.D.
Prophecy Research Initiative – non-profit 501(c)3 © 2022
EndTime Issues…, Number 256, March 3, 2022
Click here to go to PRI’s website: endtimeissues.com


[1] https://medium.com/@dina.osman/what-is-mass-formation-d2ac63020a34

[2] Beale, G. K.; The New International Greek Testament Commentary; The Book of Revelation (William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1999), p. 848.

 [3] Stefanovic, Ranko; Revelation of Jesus Christ (Andrews University Press, Berrien Springs, MI; 2002), p. 506.

[4] Spirit of Prophecy, bk 4, p. 239.

[5] The Great Controversy, p. 390.

[6] Goldhagen, Daniel; Hitler’s Willing Executioners, (Alfred A. Knopf, 1996), pp. 375-466.

[7] Ibid., p. 134.

[8] Ibid., pp. 136-143.

[9] Ibid., p. 163.

[10] Ibid., p. 386.

[11] Ibid., p. 390.

[12] Ibid., p. 391.

[13] Ibid., p. 392.

[14] Ibid., p. 393.

[15] Ibid., p. 394.

[16] Testimonies to Ministers, p. 36.

[17] https://www.catholic.org/news/national/story.php?id=85039&from=groupmessage

[18] https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/the-great-reset-is-a-radical-attack-on-freedom-and-christian-values/

[19] https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/the-great-reset-is-a-radical-attack-on-freedom-and-christian-values/

[20] https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/12/why-we-need-the-davos-manifesto-for-better-kind-of-capitalism/

[21] https://www.georgechristensen.com.au/reset

[22] https://nypost.com/2022/02/22/cdc-withholding-covid-data-over-fears-of-misinterpretation/

[23] https://zero-sum.org/mass-information-psychosis-and-the-coronavirus-narrative/

[24] Ibid.

[25] https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/the-war-on-the-unvaccinated-is-a-desperate-attempt-to-demonize-and-destroy-the-non-compliant/

[26] https://reason.com/2021/11/23/covid-19-made-democracies-more-authoritarian-and-authoritarianism-even-worse/

[27] https://larryturner.substack.com/p/mass-formation-and-consequent-totalitarian

[28] Whistleblower Magazine, “Fascism Disguised as Tolerance,” January 2022.

[29] Fundamentals of Christian Education, p. 354.

[30] Farah, Joseph; Whistleblower, December 2021.

[31] https://www.realclearpolitics.com/video/2022/01/02/dr_robert_malone_html